Goal setting is huge in the world of entrepreneurship, but are we doing it entirely wrong?

Most of us are used to setting goals around specific outcomes we’d like to achieve. We want our business to make $10 million next year. We want to learn a new language. We want to get 100,000 customers, etc. For obvious reasons, I call these ‘outcome-based’ goals. Now as good as we are at setting them, we’re nearly as good at missing them; and usually for three common reasons:

  1. We proceed along plan but get walloped by unknowns.
  2. We work earnestly only to find ourselves way behind target halfway through.
  3. We never even start.

Now, while we’re all familiar with outcome-based goals, very few of us have heard of rate-based goals. A rate-based goal is about defining a mini-goal in a shorter timeframe, thereby establishing a rate. So the goal of signing up 100,000 customers in a year becomes a goal of signing up 274 customers per day or 11 per hour. While our big outcome goals help us stake a vision, our rate goals inspire us to immediate, practical action.

How rate-based goals can remedy the ills of outcome-based goals.

Rates help tackle unknowns: Whenever we’re doing something that hasn’t been done before, we face significant unknowns. In these situations you may not know what the solution form should be, or you may have a form in mind but have no idea on how to realize it. Such situations are about risk and confidence and are perfect for rate-based goals.

In a normal outcome-based goal, you are charging away at your goal, and risk is something you avoid or impatiently swat away like flies. Using a rate-based goal, risk is something you can take head-on. After all, sizing up the unknown and making it known is essential to finding your way. You can define a rate for your systematic experimentation and exploration of the unknown to elucidate the path to success.

It works like this: If trying one idea has a five percent chance of success, then mathematically, trying 20 things will give you a 64 percent chance of success, and trying 30 things will give you a 92 percent chance of success!

So to tackle the unknown, you can set a definite rate at which you’ll try things. If you can find a way to establish a rate of three experiments per week, then 10 weeks later you’ll have massively bolstered your chances of success.

Rates help you get real: So many startups expect their growth to follow the hockey stick curve. And so many startups fail to see anything of the sort. If instead you take your goal and transform it into a daily rate, your brain will stay focused on what it will take to make your dream real. Knowing the rate will also give you faster feedback on when an approach is not in the ballpark. Of course, you may say—some things really do follow exponential curves—but take a look at this:

Here are two hypothetical exponential curves for a business—plotted week-by-week for a year. If the business hoped to reach 350,000 people by the end of the year (red curve), then you can see that the lower curve in which they miss their target by a mile actually looks nearly the same for the first 33 weeks. As a manager, it’s not ideal to expend 2/3 of your timeline and resources before you know that you’ll miss your target dramatically. By then you’ve probably put a lot of operational machinery into place that might take months to modify—at which point you’re out of time and out of business.

If instead you define a simple rate, then you can be laser focused on establishing that rate. As soon as that’s achieved, you need only sustain the rate—a far easier task than figuring out how to bring massively more customers in at the end.

Rates help to get you going: As for not even getting started, rate-based goals break down the psychological barriers to starting. If you think getting to 100,000 people sounds impossible, break it down to the daily, or even the hourly, (or even the minute!) and go after that goal. In this case, to reach 100,000 customers in a year, you’ll need to sign up one every 5.25 minutes. So get out there and sign up one customer, and don’t worry too much as to whether you can do it in 5 minutes yet.

Once you’ve hit the atomized goal, you’ll have a much clearer sense of what it takes to get customers and you can then systematically work on bringing the time down to improve your rate. So perhaps the first customer takes three days to sign up. You can now analyze the steps, conversations, questions, approaches that sealed the deal and figure out how to bring them down in terms of time or scale them up in terms of reach. You can also quickly eliminate approaches that could never be brought down to that timescale.

These quick assessments get you focused and going far faster than a huge intricate build and release Gantt chart. Starting small and focusing on the rate makes impossibly large and dreamy numbers feel real and immediate. And immediacy is what prompts you to action.

Convert your most important outcome-goal into an approachable rate-based goal. Make it your primary mission to achieve that rate instead of stressing about the big outcome number.


Update: More broadly than what is discussed in this article, I’ve been exploring the idea of “verb-ifying” goals. When our goals are defined by nouns, then they are all about what we’ll get and what we’ll attain. When our goals are defined by verbs, they become about who and how we want to be in the world. These goals have a deeper character to them and ultimately help us achieve nouns anyhow. It’s simply that the nouns become the milestones and feedback on how we are living the verbs instead of the end themselves.

About the author

Tom Chi

Tom Chi

Tom is the CPO and Head of X at Factory building teams that can build anything in the world. He is an entrepreneur, teacher, rapid prototyping enthusiast and part of the founding team of Google X.

  • DrivenbySuccess

    I am really glad I read this because this is something that I have had problems with for as long as I could remember. I am big on goal setting because I am a witnesser on how they work and how they really help but some goals that I have set up have failed me because it was too large and I did not see the unknowns. I agree with rates a ton because meeting check marks in goals will be an extremely better outcome if small problems can be delt with on a 1 by 1 basis.

  • Katie Ackerman

    Goal setting is what keeps our lives in line! You have laid this out perfect and simplistically! You can apply this to any challenges in your lie, even ones that may have failed you before. I love # 3 of your concepts. The fact that “we never start,” is one of the main challenges that I think many of us face. How do you personally get around those challenges?

  • Caitlin Donohue

    This is very good advice! Rates things more obtainable. They break things down and show the process you need to follow to obtain your goal(s). Sometimes people just set goals without breaking them down; maybe this is why so many people don’t keep their New Year’s Resolutions. Do you ever have a back up goal in case you don’t reach your actual/higher goal?

  • stangleram13

    Thank you for posting this. I do agree with setting mini-goals. I think this also usefull because I sometime go for the big goal right a way. I will use this by get one homework think done then do the next. Have you ever used this plan?

  • Tammy Hartmann

    Thank you, Tom, for sharing to change the design into reality. The goals are based on reality. Setting small goals with details can be time-consuming, but I definitely know the benefits over the long term will be positive. Any advice for people who are inept with numbers??

  • Tim Rutkowski

    Thanks Tom for another blog full of great advice, I hope to see more of these in the future. I don’y know if I completely agree with the big goal setting right away, I think that is best to start with a couple of small goals before committing to big goal to show yourself that you are capable of doing them.

  • JeremyWahl

    Thanks for another good article. For me personally, I like to start out slow and work my way up to bigger things. i think having a lot of small goals will eventually lead to bigger goals. Setting small goals over and over can be time consuming and they might get old fast but you have to stay motivated and look at the big picture.

  • karinaz10

    All of your articles are wonderful and not only relate to entrepreneurs, but to the general public. I personally struggle with goal setting. I have always known the importance of goals, but haven’t necessarily taken the time to plan and think about them. Over the years, as a result of my lack of effort I have accumulated all outcome-based goals. Reading your article I understand the these types of goals can be problematic and a more effective way is to set rate-based goals. Rate-based goal setting is a very realistic way of planning with more beneficial results.

  • Camillewuensch

    I loved this article! One of my jobs is I am a manger at a tanning salon and we have certain monthly goals for the total revenue and how many members we can get to sign up. The rate-based goals is a great thing to use. We have daily goals of how much money we aim to make for that day. I never did think to do memberships and break them down by days of how many we needed to reach and pass the goal for that month. And it totally makes sense to use the rate-based goal at jobs because I feel like it’s so much easier to see where you stand in the month and see what extra time or effort you need to push out to reach the goal.

  • earose14

    This article shows a good way to be successful! Setting goals whether small or big I think is a good way to work throughout your life. Whether you base your goals daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly are all awesome ways to make progress. Meeting certain goals you place for yourself or even a company you work for helps to self motivate you. Rate-based goals at worksites I think are the way to go because it seems much easier to see the outcomes! Do you think all worksites should set high standard weekly or monthly goals? Thanks for sharing!

  • d_millyy

    Thanks for your comment, I really like how you explained yourself. I agree with small goals because they are like stepping stones and truly they help keep you on path. Also, small goals help give you the confidence you need to reach the big goal. How often do you think a small goal should be met? Can your small goals be too far apart that they are actually big goals?

  • d_millyy

    Thank you for your comment, I really like how you said “show the process you need to follow”. I think that’s a perfect way to explain these small goals. You need to have a strategy because if you don’t then when life throws a curve ball it can completely knock you off your game. Have you ever had a goal set and then life got in the way and you never got back to that goal because it seemed too out of reach?

  • JeremyWahl

    I like that how even small goals gain confidence in yourself. In some ways, there is no timetable for small goals. You should set out on goals that are easily reached at first. once you have reached all of the goals that are easily reached you might already be half way to a bigger goal.

  • tyler

    I really enjoyed reading this article because I am someone who is all about goal setting. I love setting goals for myself, but one problem I am running into is not meeting my goals, so reading this came at the perfect time. I tend to set goals that are either too big, or too small, and I think it is because I do not want to be disapointed. Goal setting does work for me, I just really have to make sure I set reasonable goals. More than anything, I set goals that are too small that I know I will achieve. I need to learn to not be so afraid. I have seen goal setting work on so many people, and I would love to be one of those people. If I deal with the goals on a personal more serious level, I probably will have a better outcome. This article has made me realize that I need to do better at my goal setting. The rate-based goal setting is for sure something I plan on using. They are way more realistic so thanks for sharing! What advice would you give for someone who is afraid of failing when it comes to goals?

  • Adam

    You made some great points. I am, as well, a big goal setter. I think that the most important part about setting a goal is doing it for you and no one else. If the goal is for you, then there is more drive and ambition involved in the process of achieving it. I also think that disappointment is a factor that goes along with goals. If goals are easy to achieve, then what is their purpose. This comment is great and highly relatable

  • Caleb Franklin

    thanks for the article! I think this way of thinking is a great way to accomplish goals that previously seemed unattainable. Breaking long goals down into smaller parts makes it seem so much simpler and less of a daunting task. I think this is applicable in many different facets of life.

  • This article makes me want to take more risks in my own businesses. I never thought about using risks to my advantage. Setting short term goals that are more attainable seems like the more logical thing, but without risk, there is no reward. I will take this into consideration moving forward.

  • thomas kearney

    I really found this article very interesting. I think you always have to set ahead when you’re trying to reach your goals. I think making a lot short terms goals to reach that ultimate long term goal can make the process much easier to bare. I think everyone gets overwhelmed when thinking of long term goals so setting up short terms goals can make you more eager to reach your maximum goals.

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tersenyum manis lalu merangkul bahu Ezza“Hmm” Ringkas sahaja jawapan Ezza“Adik tengah fikir pasal apa tu” Lelaki itu menanya lembut Matanya masih lagi memandang tanah kubur kakaknya yang masih merah“Adik teringat kata-kata terakhir yang kakak cakap dekat adik malam semalam” Ezza letakkan kepalanya di atas bahu lelaki itu Entah kenapa bila dengan Haziq dia terasa selamat dan selesa Walaupun lelaki itu hanyalah abang tirinya“Apa yang kakak cakap dekat adik”Ezza terdiam“Tak ada apa-apa la” Dia menghela nafasnya perlahan-lahan kemudian mengukir satu senyuman buat abang tersayang“Is it something awful” Timbul rasa ingin tahu dalam diri kotak fikiran lelaki itu Haziq arif benar dengan perangai Kayla yang selalu sahaja menyakitkan hati Ezza Kakaknya itu memang tak boleh lekat dengan Ezza tapi dia tidak Dia senang bila bersama dengan adik perempuannya itu“Tak ada apa-apa la Abang Iz” Ezza masih lagi tetap dengan pendiriannya“Hmm…” “Tak baik la kita cakap pasal benda ni dekat sini Abang Iz”Haziq mengangguk “Okey jom balik Abang Iz dah lapar ni Hari ni Abang Iz nak makan asam pedas yang Ezza masak Boleh Ezza masakkan asam pedas untuk Abang Iz” Lelaki itu menanya kemudian tersenyum manisEzza bangun dari duduknya “Tengoklah dulu”“Apa tengok-tengok Ah tak ada Kena masak jugak asam pedas tu untuk Abang Iz”*******Usai sahaja majlis bacaan tahlil terus Azrul keluar dari perkarangan ruang tamu Kakinya laju melangkah ke arah laman rumah bakal mertuanya Tiba-tiba terdetik sesuatu di hatinya Tak Azrul Kau tak sempat pun jadi menantu diaorang Kau dah tak boleh datang sini lagi“Oi buat apa dekat luar ni Terfikir pasal apa tu” Dia disergah oleh seseorang dari belakang Lamunan Azrul terhenti di situ Dia hanya membalas senyuman yang diberikan oleh bakal adik iparnya yang tak kini tak mungkin lagi jadi adik iparnya“Tak ada apa la Orang tengah buat apa dekat dalam” Azrul menanya hanya sekadar ingin memulakan perbualan“Tengah makan la Aku malas nak involve biar je la si Ezza tu uruskan dengan Mummy” Haziq menjawab selamba kemudian tergelak kecilAzrul sekadar tersenyum“Bro…” Haziq menoleh ke sebelah kemudian memandang Azrul tepat ke dalam anak mata lelaki iu “What is done is done Okay You need to move on”Bintang-bintang di langit menjadi tatapan Azrul pada malam itu “Aku yang jadi punca dia tak ada sekarang Ziq Aku yang pisahkan kau dengan kakak kau”“Sudah la Benda dah jadi Kakak pun dah selamat dikebumikan Aku tak rasa Kayla suka tengok kau macam ni Semua benda ni jadi bersebab Rul Kau kena tahu tu Mungkin Allah lebih sayangkan dia Tak ada siapa tahu kan” Haziq masih lagi cuba memujuk“Aku tak dapat maafkan diri aku sendiri Ziq Aku dah kecewakan dia malam tu Aku sepatutnya ada dengan dia malam tu I should celebrated her birthday with her just like the way we planned Tapi semua benda tu tak terjadi Aku tak ada dekat situ Aku tak ada dengan dia” “Azrul…” “Aku ni memang tunang yang tak guna Aku sibuk sangat fikirkan kerjaya aku sampaikan aku dah tak hiraukan dia I even forgotten about her birthday for the last three years Aku ni tak guna kan Ziq”“Azrul” Haziq pegang bahu lelaki itu dengan kuat “Kau sedar tak apa yang kau tengah cakap sekarang ni Kalau Kayla ada dekat sini dia mesti sedih dengar apa yang kau cakapkan tadi Aku tahu kau sayangkan dia… tapi macam mana kau salahkan diri kau sekalipun Kayla takkan hidup balik”Azrul tidak membalas Dia hanya mendengar dengan teliti apa yang Haziq sampaikan Melihat Azrul yang mendiamkan diri Haziq bangun dari tempat duduknya kemudian membuang pandangan ke arah lain“Sudah la Rul Aku bagi kau masa untuk redakan kemarahan kau dulu Tapi aku nak kau tahu… you are always welcome into our family You are no strangers to us Okay”Azrul sekadar mengangguk perlahan*******2 bulan kemudian…“Balik nanti nak Abang Iz ambik tak” Haziq menanya Ezza yang sedang menanggalkan topi keledar berwarna hitam yang dipakainya“Hah Arr emm… jap Nak bawak keluar helmet ni kejap Kenapa tak boleh bukak pulak ni” Ezza menarik-narik topi keledar yang dipakainya tinggi ke udara sehinggakan kepalanya tertarik sekali “Adoi adoi”Haziq tergelak-gelak melihat telatah adik perempuannya itu Isy tak habis-habis dengan perangai comel dia tu “Meh sini Abang Iz tolong bukakkan” Haziq tarik pergelangan tangan adiknya supaya menghadapnya“Abang Iz ni… beli helmet yang ketat-ketat kenapa” ngomel EzzaHaziq tersenyum “Kepala dia yang besar salahkan helmet pulak”“Isy Abang Iz ni”Haziq tarik keluar topi keleder yang dipakai oleh Ezza tadi “Tengok Kan senang je bila Abang Iz buat Patience is a virtue…”“Ooo Abang Iz perli adik la ni” Ezza menjelirkan lidahnya kemudian tersenyum manja membuatkan Haziq tergelak kecil“Okay dah comel dah tu Ni lepas habis kerja nak Abang Iz ambik jugak ke” “Tak payah kot Lagipun nanti susahkan Abang Iz je” “Alah kalau Abang Iz ambik adik malam ni Kita boleh pergi keluar makan Lepak-lepak dekat mamak ke Abang Iz belanja”Ezza melentokkan kepalanya ke sebelah kanan kemudian membuat muka comel “Hmm sounds good la bab belanja tu”“Isy kalau orang belanja baru dia nak Siapa punya adik la ni” Haziq melirikkan matanya ke arah Ezza kemudian melipatkan tangannya ke dadaEzza tergelak manja “Adik Abang Iz la Hehe… okay malam ni kita pergi dinner sama-sama ye Ezza habis kerja pukul 9 malam ni so Abang Iz datang sini pukul 830 ke”“Amboi demand nampak” “Dengan abang sendiri tak apa kan” “I guess la…”“Sayang Abang Iz” Ezza menarik tangan lelaki itu kemudian diciumnya “Ezza pergi kerja dulu ye Assalamualaikum…”Haziq sekadar menguntum senyuman kemudian mengusap-usap kepala adiknya “Wa??alaikumussalam Kerja elok-elok”“I will”Dia juga memegang jawatan sebagai ketua pewlajar di kampusnya dan sebab itulah Ana beria-ria belajar bersunguh-sungguh sehingga mendapat dekan.There??s no turning back you now.Mak”serentak mereka bersuara dan kemudian ketawa mereka berderaian.Alif : hi syg, “Macamlah saya tak biasa, Lelaki kurang ajar!” Mariya menjeling sinis kepada Hakimi yang masih lagi duduk di kerusinya.” Mariya bangkit mahu mengatur langkah mahu beredar. Di sini apa yang harus aku tulis?Sudah setahun lebih aku di kampus ini tapi sedikit pun tidak ada karya yang kuciptakan bagi memberikan gambaran sebenar kehidupan seorang siswa atau siswi. insyaAllah. Sebentuk cincin disarungkan ke jari manisku seiring ungkapan “terima kasih.” dengan penuh kelembutan sambil merenung jauh ke dalam mataku dan tanpa segan silu dia mengucup jari jemariku Aku tertunduk malu bila suasana itu menjadi bahan usikan para tetamu Mujur juga yang hadir hanya sanak saudaraku sahaja dan kenalan rapat Sean Kini aku yakin tiada lagi kebencian di hati Sean kepadaku Aku tidak tahu kenapa perasaan bencinya telah bertukar menjadi sayang kepadaku dalam masa sesingkat itu Mungkin sudah bosan dengan cara hidupnya atau terpikat dengan kesabarku melayan kerenahnya Aku melihat Datin Hasnah tersenyum memandangku Datin Hasnah rasa bersyukur kerana aku telah berjaya mengubah pendirian satu-satunya anak lelaki pewaris perniagaan keluarga setelah dia kematian suami dua tahun yang lalu Tertunai sudah apa yang pernah diungkapkannya kepadaku sebelum ini Dia inginkan menantu seperti aku Aku berdoa dengan penuh rasa redha jika inilah ketentuan pilihan-Nya untukku “Ya Allah seandainya telah Engkau catatkan dia untukku Satukanlah hatinya dengan hatiku Titipkan kebahagiaan antara kami Agar kemesraan itu abadi Amin”

  • * * * * *“Wey,“AZHAR!Dari sinaran kegelapan malam yang renyai,Aku bangga. “Allah. Awkward silent. apa salahnya aku pun tak kenal sapa-sapa kat sini. awak minumlah??30 pagi. jom kita pergi.

  • “Aruna… itulah balasan yang kau terima kerana mengecewakan aku! tanyakan Ham.“Terima kasih Mak Leha, “Aku tak dengar pun kau ketuk pintu. Kadang-kadang naik pening kepala saya layan karenah dia. kita hiasi dengan aktiviti tadarus, Awak tahu kenapa? Sebenarnya terdapat pelbagai sebab kenapa saya tampar awak masa tu First sebab awak nak bunuh diri awak Takkan awak tak tahu yang membunuh diri sendiri adalah dosa yang paling dimurkai Allah Takkan awak tak takut Tuhan takkan awak tak takut neraka Second gara-gara saya nak selamatkan awak saya tersentuh tangan yang bukan muhrim saya iaitu tangan awak Awak tahu tak sepanjang hidup saya saya tak pernah pegang tangan orang lelaki lain kecuali tangan ayah saya? Model Malaysia yang berjaya menembusi pasaran antarabangsa hanya selepas setahun menceburkan diri dalam bidang peragaan. Okey sebut pasal model…“Hmm Qisya nak terus jadi model ke?Aku ketika itu masih kat hospital dikhabarkan berita oleh ayah yang melawat ku.

  • Aku masih menggagahi diri untuk terus menunggu walaupun di dalam hati ingin saja aku berlari balik ke hostel. Jauh di negeri orang dan ibu terpaksa menanggung rindu yang tidak kepalang. Abang lang itu…. Manalah tau dia memang jodoh kau!“Apa bu, ucap Ezani lagi. I love you.” ucapan terakhir Fakrul sebelum mereka berpisah di bilik hotel mereka tadi kembali terngiang-ngiang ditelinganya Tanpa semena-mena air mata Ezani luruh“Abang. Takut? Siapa pun budak itu dia tidak takut.Am tak ada banyak masa lagi.

  • Dr.” Ujarku secara bergurau dan kami bertiga ketawa. Tak perlulah nak berterima kasih mak cik. Emak ada berahsia apa-apa ke dengan aku?“InsyaAllah… tapi mak cik kena tanya tuan empunya dululah ye” Cikgu Fahmi menggangguk dengan kata-kata emak Aku semakin pelik Kemudian Cikgu Fahmi meminta diri Aku masih memandang wajah Cikgu Fahmi walaupun Cikgu Fahmi sudah berlalu pergi Mengingati kata-kata emak dan Cikgu Fahmi silih berganti“Zara bawak cawan-cawan tu masuk” Arah emak sekaligus memutuskan lamunanku tadip/s : Saya baru bertatih dlm penulisanSaya berharap anda meninggalkan komen bagi meningkatkan lagi penulisan saya pada masa akan datang Terima kasih kerana sudi membaca… Mungkin juga, aku kasih kepada saudara sendiri, Tahulah apa yang nak aku katakan padanya nanti. Biarlah ai terus berlalu kerana segalanya sudah direncanakan. Lama-lama, sejak aku bagi SMS luahan perasaan tu dia tak balas even satu SMS pun.

  • dia Tanya aku balik.“cakap apa? Nina bersama dengannya hanya kerana mahu dapatkan kemewahan tetapi hanya abang yang Nina sayang. Aku tahu hanya itu yang Nina harapkan daripadaku. Sesampainya aku di rumah terus sahaja aku menaip mesej kepada Hisyam yang mengatakan aku sudah selamat sampai.” awak ni datang untuk event sukan tu juga ke? ?? Hujan makin lebat. Tapi aku gembira kerana Faris sudah mula menampakkan rasa prihatinnya terhadap diriku.“Dah bersiap?

  • Tawni Meyer

    I think time mangement and the rating system introduced above is essential. I think the two are tied into each other. For example if you make a goal for the week, you can make a chart and break it down into smaller goals. You can aim for these smaller goals during the times you see in the week so you dont feel overwhelmed.

  • jfaulkner35

    could not agree more, I thought my goals were specific until I read this and went back to look at them. Ended up overhauling my list, same ideas, but I wrote out specific short term goals which could be attained within small time periods. My results so far have much improved.

  • KE7JLM

    It can be time consuming but its like a small time investment. A couple hours here could save you days or weeks in the long run.

  • Julia

    I think rates are great. They help you realize what you need to do in order to accomplish something. As a future educator, I understand there are things I need to go through in order to get a teaching license. I have to set goals to accomplish types of things like this, such as the praxis test. Making even a list of things to accomplish can help you complete the goals you want to achieve.

  • Ashleigh Hartlaub

    I agree with your comments. Taking more risks could be good but I think its also scary with whatever risk you might take. Some might not be as serious but taking that huge step in whatever risk it could be might not turn out the greatest.

  • Ashleigh Hartlaub

    I like the idea of breaking up a bigger goal into smaller goals. Being able to attain the smaller goals will help you achieve the bigger goal in the future.

  • purperoar21

    Setting goals and rates are great, sometimes they can be overwhelming and may lead to failing to achieve the goal. Also it might make you feel obligated to stay at a consistent rate, however it is important to incline your goals as you proceed to exceed them.

  • Bjackson5

    It’s interesting how you incorporated the two concepts, timing and amount of effort. This theory of how rate-based thinking can assist with future problems is very useful. If achieving a goal was based on the amount of attempts taken, then planning a variety of efforts prior to the first try would be a solid technique.

  • But that’s the beauty of taking a risk! The payout is sooooo much more rewarding! If you never take a risk, especially on something you believe in, then you don’t deserve to progress. Not to sound harsh, but it’s insane to think that doing the same old thing will produce different results.